Creatine Monohydrate

What is it?
Creatine is a molecule that's produced in the body from amino acids. It's primarily made in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the kidneys and pancreas. It stores high-energy phosphate groups in the form of phosphocreatine, which are donated to ADP and regenerates it to ATP, the primary energy carrier in the body. This role in energy production is particularly relevant under conditions of high energy demand such as intense physical or mental activity.

What does it do?
Creatine can help with exercise performance by rapidly producing energy during intense activity. The primary benefit of creatine is an improvement in strength and power output during resistance exercise. When used in conjunction with resistance exercise, creatine may modestly increase lean mass. 


Additional Reading and References:

Hormones (Testosterone, GH, DHT, etc.)

    1. Three weeks of creatine monohydrate supplementation affects dihydrotestosterone to testosterone ratio in college-aged rugby players

    1. The effects of creatine supplementation on performance and hormonal response in amateur swimmers

    1. Effects of short term creatine supplementation and resistance exercises on resting hormonal and cardiovascular responses

    1. Skill execution and sleep deprivation: effects of acute caffeine or creatine supplementation - a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    1. Effect of Creatine and Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Performance and Endocrine Responses in Strength/Power Athletes

    1. The effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and HMB/creatine supplementation on indices of health in highly trained athletes

    1. Creatine supplementation post-exercise does not enhance training-induced adaptations in middle to older aged males

    1. Response of Testosterone and Cortisol Concentrations to High-Intensity Resistance Exercise Following Creatine Supplementation


    1. Short-term creatine supplementation does not alter the hormonal response to resistance training

    1. The effects of creatine supplementation on muscular performance and body composition responses to short-term resistance training overreaching


    1. Creatine, DHT, Hair Loss & Prostate Cancer - Bro-Scientific Old Wives' Tales or Possible Side Effect? Plus: (Non-)Sense Creatine Loading, Exercise Induced 5-α Reduction & More - SuppVersity: Nutrition and Exercise Science for Everyone

    1. - Creatine: Why Use It? Scientific Support To Back Its Benefits

    1. Creatine: a miserable life without it | SpringerLink

    1. Manipulation of Muscle Creatine and Glycogen Changes DXA Estimates of Body Composition

    1. Creatine and creatine forms intended for sports nutrition – Andres, 2016

    1. Reference intervals for serum creatine kinase in athletes

    1. Creatine and the creatine transporter: A review

Athletic performance

    1. Creatine Supplementation as an Ergogenic Aid for Sports Performance in Highly Trained Athletes: A Critical Review

    1. Oral Creatine Supplementation and Athletic Performance: A Critical Review

    1. Creatine supplementation and swimming performance; a systematic review and meta-analysis

    1. Effects of Combined Creatine and Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Repeated Sprint Performance in Trained Men

    1. The effects of a pre-workout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, and amino acids during three weeks of high-intensity exercise on aerobic and anaerobic performance.

    1. Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports performance: an update Creatine Supplementation: safe and not just for athletes | The BMJ

    1. Creatine and Phosphocreatine: A Review of Their Use in Exercise and Sport

    1. The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Explosive Performance and Optimal Individual Postactivation Potentiation Time

Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) and inflammation

    1. Effects of a High Protein and Omega-3-Enriched Diet with or Without Creatine Supplementation on Markers of Soreness and Inflammation During 5 Consecutive Days of High Volume Resistance Exercise in Females

Position stands

    1. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: creatine supplementation and exercise

    1. American College of Sports Medicine roundtable. The physiological and health effects of oral creatine supplementation

Safety and efficacy

    1. Analysis of the efficacy, safety, and regulatory status of novel forms of creatine | SpringerLink

    1. Creatine: a review of efficacy and safety. - Abstract - Europe PMC

    1. Is creatine safe? | Creatine and creatine forms intended for sports nutrition. - PubMed - NCBI

    1. Potential Side Effects of Oral Creatine Supplementation: A Critical Review

    1. Creatine: a review of efficacy and safety

Health, neurology, and cognitive effects

    1. The neuroprotective role of creatine. - PubMed - NCBI

    1. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. - PubMed - NCBI

    1. Long-term creatine supplementation does not significantly affect clinical markers of health in athletes. - PubMed - NCBI

Strength and hypertrophy

    1. Creatine Supplementation and Upper Limb Strength Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    1. Creatine Supplementation and Lower Limb Strength Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

    1. Effect of creatine supplementation and drop-set resistance training in untrained aging adults. - PubMed - NCBI

    1. Does oral creatine supplementation improve strength? A meta-analysis. (Original Research)

  1. Effects of Five Weeks of Resistance Training and Relatively-Dosed Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation on Body Composition and Muscle Strength, and Whole-Body Creatine Metabolism in Resistance-Trained Males